WHAT IF Check report

This file was created 2011-12-17 from WHAT_CHECK output by a conversion script. If you are new to WHAT_CHECK, please study the pdbreport pages. There also exists a legend to the output.

Please note that you are looking at an abridged version of the output (all checks that gave normal results have been removed from this report). You can have a look at the Full report instead.

Verification log for pdb1rz7.ent

Checks that need to be done early-on in validation

Warning: Ligands for which a topology was generated automatically

The topology for the ligands in the table below were determined automatically. WHAT IF uses a local copy of Daan van Aalten's Dundee PRODRG server to automatically generate topology information for ligands. For this PDB file that seems to have gone fine, but be aware that automatic topology generation is a complicated task. So, if you get messages that you fail to understand or that you believe are wrong, and one of these ligands is involved, then check the ligand topology first.

 431 GOL   ( 214-)  L  -
 432 GOL   ( 214-)  H  -

Non-validating, descriptive output paragraph

Note: Ramachandran plot

In this Ramachandran plot x-signs represent glycines, squares represent prolines, and plus-signs represent the other residues. If too many plus- signs fall outside the contoured areas then the molecule is poorly refined (or worse). Proline can only occur in the narrow region around phi=-60 that also falls within the other contour islands.

In a colour picture, the residues that are part of a helix are shown in blue, strand residues in red. Preferred regions for helical residues are drawn in blue, for strand residues in red, and for all other residues in green. A full explanation of the Ramachandran plot together with a series of examples can be found at the WHAT_CHECK website.

Chain identifier: L

Note: Ramachandran plot

Chain identifier: H

Coordinate problems, unexpected atoms, B-factor and occupancy checks

Warning: What type of B-factor?

WHAT IF does not yet know well how to cope with B-factors in case TLS has been used. It simply assumes that the B-factor listed on the ATOM and HETATM cards are the total B-factors. When TLS refinement is used that assumption sometimes is not correct. TLS seems not mentioned in the header of the PDB file. But anyway, if WHAT IF complains about your B-factors, and you think that they are OK, then check for TLS related B-factor problems first.

Obviously, the temperature at which the X-ray data was collected has some importance too:

Crystal temperature (K) :100.000

Note: B-factor plot

The average atomic B-factor per residue is plotted as function of the residue number.

Chain identifier: L

Note: B-factor plot

Chain identifier: H

Nomenclature related problems

Warning: Tyrosine convention problem

The tyrosine residues listed in the table below have their chi-2 not between -90.0 and 90.0

  48 TYR   (  49-)  L
 238 TYR   (  27-)  H
 244 TYR   (  33-)  H
 271 TYR   (  59-)  H
 306 TYR   (  91-)  H

Warning: Phenylalanine convention problem

The phenylalanine residues listed in the table below have their chi-2 not between -90.0 and 90.0.

  82 PHE   (  83-)  L
  96 PHE   (  98-)  L
 114 PHE   ( 116-)  L
 207 PHE   ( 209-)  L
 275 PHE   (  63-)  H
 317 PHE   ( 100-)  H

Warning: Aspartic acid convention problem

The aspartic acid residues listed in the table below have their chi-2 not between -90.0 and 90.0, or their proton on OD1 instead of OD2.

  69 ASP   (  70-)  L
 266 ASP   (  54-)  H
 268 ASP   (  56-)  H
 284 ASP   (  72-)  H
 288 ASP   (  76-)  H
 425 ASP   ( 208-)  H

Warning: Glutamic acid convention problem

The glutamic acid residues listed in the table below have their chi-3 outside the -90.0 to 90.0 range, or their proton on OE1 instead of OE2.

 103 GLU   ( 105-)  L
 141 GLU   ( 143-)  L
 163 GLU   ( 165-)  L
 265 GLU   (  53-)  H

Geometric checks

Warning: Unusual bond angles

The bond angles listed in the table below were found to deviate more than 4 sigma from standard bond angles (both standard values and sigma for protein residues have been taken from Engh and Huber [REF], for DNA/RNA from Parkinson et al [REF]). In the table below for each strange angle the bond angle and the number of standard deviations it differs from the standard values is given. Please note that disulphide bridges are neglected. Atoms starting with "-" belong to the previous residue in the sequence.

 112 SER   ( 114-)  L      N    CA   C    98.86   -4.4
 337 SER   ( 120-)  H      N    CA   C    99.25   -4.3
 341 LEU   ( 124-)  H      N    CA   C    96.50   -5.3

Error: Nomenclature error(s)

Checking for a hand-check. WHAT IF has over the course of this session already corrected the handedness of atoms in several residues. These were administrative corrections. These residues are listed here.

  69 ASP   (  70-)  L
 103 GLU   ( 105-)  L
 141 GLU   ( 143-)  L
 163 GLU   ( 165-)  L
 265 GLU   (  53-)  H
 266 ASP   (  54-)  H
 268 ASP   (  56-)  H
 284 ASP   (  72-)  H
 288 ASP   (  76-)  H
 425 ASP   ( 208-)  H

Error: Tau angle problems

The side chains of the residues listed in the table below contain a tau angle (N-Calpha-C) that was found to deviate from te expected value by more than 4.0 times the expected standard deviation. The number in the table is the number of standard deviations this RMS value deviates from the expected value.

 341 LEU   ( 124-)  H    5.60
 112 SER   ( 114-)  L    4.89
 337 SER   ( 120-)  H    4.71
 360 LYS   ( 143-)  H    4.56
  92 SER   (  93-)  L    4.39

Torsion-related checks

Warning: Torsion angle evaluation shows unusual residues

The residues listed in the table below contain bad or abnormal torsion angles.

These scores give an impression of how `normal' the torsion angles in protein residues are. All torsion angles except omega are used for calculating a `normality' score. Average values and standard deviations were obtained from the residues in the WHAT IF database. These are used to calculate Z-scores. A residue with a Z-score of below -2.0 is poor, and a score of less than -3.0 is worrying. For such residues more than one torsion angle is in a highly unlikely position.

  93 PHE   (  94-)  L    -3.2
 364 PRO   ( 147-)  H    -3.0
 366 PRO   ( 149-)  H    -2.9
 355 LEU   ( 138-)  H    -2.7
 261 LEU   (  50-)  H    -2.5
 106 ARG   ( 108-)  L    -2.3
 252 PRO   (  41-)  H    -2.2
 336 PRO   ( 119-)  H    -2.0

Warning: Backbone evaluation reveals unusual conformations

The residues listed in the table below have abnormal backbone torsion angles.

Residues with `forbidden' phi-psi combinations are listed, as well as residues with unusual omega angles (deviating by more than 3 sigma from the normal value). Please note that it is normal if about 5 percent of the residues is listed here as having unusual phi-psi combinations.

   6 SER   (   7-)  L  PRO omega poor
  29 SER   (  30-)  L  Poor phi/psi
  49 ALA   (  50-)  L  Poor phi/psi
  50 ALA   (  51-)  L  Poor phi/psi
  83 ALA   (  84-)  L  Poor phi/psi
  91 ASN   (  92-)  L  Poor phi/psi
  93 PHE   (  94-)  L  Poor phi/psi
 138 TYR   ( 140-)  L  PRO omega poor
 150 ASN   ( 152-)  L  Poor phi/psi
 169 SER   ( 171-)  L  Poor phi/psi
 267 ALA   (  55-)  H  Poor phi/psi
 303 ALA   (  88-)  H  Poor phi/psi
 315 ASN   ( 100-)  H  Poor phi/psi
 361 ASP   ( 144-)  H  Poor phi/psi
 363 PHE   ( 146-)  H  PRO omega poor
 365 GLU   ( 148-)  H  PRO omega poor
 373 SER   ( 156-)  H  Poor phi/psi
 377 THR   ( 160-)  H  Poor phi/psi
 421 ASN   ( 204-)  H  Poor phi/psi
 chi-1/chi-2 correlation Z-score : -1.098

Warning: Unusual backbone conformations

For the residues listed in the table below, the backbone formed by itself and two neighbouring residues on either side is in a conformation that is not seen very often in the database of solved protein structures. The number given in the table is the number of similar backbone conformations in the database with the same amino acid in the centre.

For this check, backbone conformations are compared with database structures using C-alpha superpositions with some restraints on the backbone oxygen positions.

A residue mentioned in the table can be part of a strange loop, or there might be something wrong with it or its directly surrounding residues. There are a few of these in every protein, but in any case it is worth looking at!

   6 SER   (   7-)  L      0
   8 SER   (   9-)  L      0
   9 SER   (  10-)  L      0
  11 SER   (  12-)  L      0
  14 VAL   (  15-)  L      0
  25 SER   (  26-)  L      0
  28 ILE   (  29-)  L      0
  29 SER   (  30-)  L      0
  30 THR   (  31-)  L      0
  31 TRP   (  32-)  L      0
  32 LEU   (  33-)  L      0
  39 PRO   (  40-)  L      0
  49 ALA   (  50-)  L      0
  50 ALA   (  51-)  L      0
  51 SER   (  52-)  L      0
  54 GLN   (  55-)  L      0
  55 SER   (  56-)  L      0
  61 PHE   (  62-)  L      0
  64 SER   (  65-)  L      0
  66 SER   (  67-)  L      0
  68 THR   (  69-)  L      0
  69 ASP   (  70-)  L      0
  70 PHE   (  71-)  L      0
  75 ASN   (  76-)  L      0
  78 GLN   (  79-)  L      0
And so on for a total of 168 lines.

Warning: Omega angles too tightly restrained

The omega angles for trans-peptide bonds in a structure are expected to give a gaussian distribution with the average around +178 degrees and a standard deviation around 5.5 degrees. These expected values were obtained from very accurately determined structures. Many protein structures are too tightly restrained. This seems to be the case with the current structure too, as the observed standard deviation is below 4.0 degrees.

Standard deviation of omega values : 1.495

Bump checks

Error: Abnormally short interatomic distances

The pairs of atoms listed in the table below have an unusually short interactomic distance; each bump is listed in only one direction.

The contact distances of all atom pairs have been checked. Two atoms are said to `bump' if they are closer than the sum of their Van der Waals radii minus 0.40 Angstrom. For hydrogen bonded pairs a tolerance of 0.55 Angstrom is used. The first number in the table tells you how much shorter that specific contact is than the acceptable limit. The second distance is the distance between the centres of the two atoms. Although we believe that two water atoms at 2.4 A distance are too close, we only report water pairs that are closer than this rather short distance.

The last text-item on each line represents the status of the atom pair. If the final column contains the text 'HB', the bump criterion was relaxed because there could be a hydrogen bond. Similarly relaxed criteria are used for 1-3 and 1-4 interactions (listed as 'B2' and 'B3', respectively). BL indicates that the B-factors of the clashing atoms have a low B-factor thereby making this clash even more worrisome. INTRA and INTER indicate whether the clashes are between atoms in the same asymmetric unit, or atoms in symmetry related asymmetric units, respectively.

 145 GLN   ( 147-)  L      NE2 <->  433 HOH   (1013 )  L      O      0.28    2.42  INTRA
 101 LYS   ( 103-)  L      NZ  <->  433 HOH   (1058 )  L      O      0.22    2.48  INTRA
 277 GLY   (  65-)  H      N   <->  434 HOH   (1102 )  H      O      0.22    2.48  INTRA BF
 147 LYS   ( 149-)  L      NZ  <->  433 HOH   (1222 )  L      O      0.21    2.49  INTRA
  75 ASN   (  76-)  L      ND2 <->  433 HOH   (1174 )  L      O      0.21    2.49  INTRA BF
 136 ASN   ( 138-)  L      ND2 <->  381 HIS   ( 164-)  H      CE1    0.17    2.93  INTRA
  17 ARG   (  18-)  L      NH1 <->   75 ASN   (  76-)  L      OD1    0.16    2.54  INTRA BF
 121 GLU   ( 123-)  L      OE2 <->  426 LYS   ( 209-)  H      NZ     0.14    2.56  INTRA
 212 GLU   (   1-)  H      CG  <->  213 VAL   (   2-)  H      N      0.09    2.91  INTRA BF
  36 GLN   (  37-)  L      NE2 <->  431 GOL   ( 214-)  L      C1     0.08    3.02  INTRA
 196 HIS   ( 198-)  L      ND1 <->  198 GLY   ( 200-)  L      N      0.07    2.93  INTRA BL
 418 LYS   ( 201-)  H      N   <->  419 PRO   ( 202-)  H      CD     0.07    2.93  INTRA BL
  44 LYS   (  45-)  L      NZ  <->  431 GOL   ( 214-)  L      O3     0.07    2.63  INTRA BF
 349 SER   ( 132-)  H      N   <->  352 THR   ( 135-)  H      O      0.06    2.64  INTRA BF
   1 ILE   (   2-)  L      N   <->   26 GLN   (  27-)  L      NE2    0.06    2.79  INTRA BF
 416 ASN   ( 199-)  H      ND2 <->  434 HOH   (1098 )  H      O      0.06    2.64  INTRA
 233 CYS   (  22-)  H      SG  <->  245 MET   (  34-)  H      CE     0.05    3.35  INTRA
 220 ALA   (   9-)  H      N   <->  434 HOH   (1112 )  H      O      0.05    2.65  INTRA
 248 VAL   (  37-)  H      O   <->  306 TYR   (  91-)  H      N      0.04    2.66  INTRA BL
 262 ILE   (  51-)  H      CG1 <->  263 ASP   (  52-)  H      N      0.04    2.96  INTRA
  91 ASN   (  92-)  L      CB  <->   92 SER   (  93-)  L      N      0.04    2.66  INTRA BF
 417 HIS   ( 200-)  H      ND1 <->  420 SER   ( 203-)  H      OG     0.03    2.67  INTRA BL
  23 ARG   (  24-)  L      NH2 <->  433 HOH   (1223 )  L      O      0.03    2.67  INTRA BF
  29 SER   (  30-)  L      CB  <->   30 THR   (  31-)  L      N      0.02    2.68  INTRA B3
  18 VAL   (  19-)  L      O   <->   74 ILE   (  75-)  L      N      0.02    2.68  INTRA BL
 114 PHE   ( 116-)  L      CD1 <->  347 SER   ( 130-)  H      CA     0.02    3.18  INTRA
 121 GLU   ( 123-)  L      CD  <->  426 LYS   ( 209-)  H      NZ     0.02    3.08  INTRA
 334 LYS   ( 117-)  H      NZ  <->  434 HOH   (1144 )  H      O      0.02    2.68  INTRA
  15 GLY   (  16-)  L      N   <->   77 LEU   (  78-)  L      O      0.02    2.68  INTRA
 248 VAL   (  37-)  H      CG1 <->  249 ARG   (  38-)  H      N      0.02    2.98  INTRA BL
 314 LEU   (  99-)  H      N   <->  315 ASN   ( 100-)  H      N      0.02    2.58  INTRA B3
 103 GLU   ( 105-)  L      OE1 <->  171 TYR   ( 173-)  L      OH     0.02    2.38  INTRA
 370 SER   ( 153-)  H      O   <->  414 ASN   ( 197-)  H      N      0.02    2.68  INTRA BL
 114 PHE   ( 116-)  L      CD1 <->  347 SER   ( 130-)  H      C      0.02    3.18  INTRA
 208 ASN   ( 210-)  L      N   <->  211 GLU   ( 213-)  L      OE1    0.02    2.68  INTRA BF
 372 ASN   ( 155-)  H      N   <->  412 ILE   ( 195-)  H      O      0.02    2.68  INTRA BL
 310 ASP   (  95-)  H      N   <->  434 HOH   (1023 )  H      O      0.02    2.68  INTRA BL
  93 PHE   (  94-)  L      C   <->   94 PHE   (  96-)  L      CD1    0.01    3.09  INTRA BF
 330 SER   ( 113-)  H      N   <->  331 ALA   ( 114-)  H      N      0.01    2.59  INTRA BL
 284 ASP   (  72-)  H      N   <->  289 THR   (  77-)  H      O      0.01    2.69  INTRA
  78 GLN   (  79-)  L      O   <->   81 ASP   (  82-)  L      N      0.01    2.69  INTRA BL
   5 GLN   (   6-)  L      OE1 <->   99 GLY   ( 101-)  L      N      0.01    2.69  INTRA BL
 226 GLY   (  15-)  H      N   <->  297 LEU   (  82-)  H      O      0.01    2.69  INTRA
 188 LYS   ( 190-)  L      O   <->  209 ARG   ( 211-)  L      N      0.01    2.69  INTRA
 165 ASP   ( 167-)  L      N   <->  170 THR   ( 172-)  L      O      0.01    2.69  INTRA

Packing, accessibility and threading

Note: Inside/Outside RMS Z-score plot

The Inside/Outside distribution normality RMS Z-score over a 15 residue window is plotted as function of the residue number. High areas in the plot (above 1.5) indicate unusual inside/outside patterns.

Chain identifier: L

Note: Inside/Outside RMS Z-score plot

Chain identifier: H

Warning: Abnormal packing environment for some residues

The residues listed in the table below have an unusual packing environment.

The packing environment of the residues is compared with the average packing environment for all residues of the same type in good PDB files. A low packing score can indicate one of several things: Poor packing, misthreading of the sequence through the density, crystal contacts, contacts with a co-factor, or the residue is part of the active site. It is not uncommon to see a few of these, but in any case this requires further inspection of the residue.

 322 GLN   ( 105-)  H      -5.57
  41 LYS   (  42-)  L      -5.38
 365 GLU   ( 148-)  H      -5.35
 105 LYS   ( 107-)  L      -5.33
 197 GLN   ( 199-)  L      -5.25
 372 ASN   ( 155-)  H      -5.12
 140 ARG   ( 142-)  L      -5.03
 429 GLU   ( 212-)  H      -5.02

Note: Quality value plot

The quality value smoothed over a 10 residue window is plotted as function of the residue number. Low areas in the plot (below -2.0) indicate unusual packing.

Chain identifier: L

Note: Quality value plot

The quality value smoothed over a 10 residue window is plotted as function of the residue number. Low areas in the plot (below -2.0) indicate unusual packing.

Chain identifier: H

Note: Second generation quality Z-score plot

The second generation quality Z-score smoothed over a 10 residue window is plotted as function of the residue number. Low areas in the plot (below -1.3) indicate unusual packing.

Chain identifier: L

Note: Second generation quality Z-score plot

Chain identifier: H

Water, ion, and hydrogenbond related checks

Warning: Water molecules need moving

The water molecules listed in the table below were found to be significantly closer to a symmetry related non-water molecule than to the ones given in the coordinate file. For optimal viewing convenience revised coordinates for these water molecules should be given.

The number in brackets is the identifier of the water molecule in the input file. Suggested coordinates are also given in the table. Please note that alternative conformations for protein residues are not taken into account for this calculation. If you are using WHAT IF / WHAT-CHECK interactively, then the moved waters can be found in PDB format in the file: MOVEDH2O.pdb.

 434 HOH   (1179 )  H      O     12.52   13.87   -3.89
 434 HOH   (1180 )  H      O     12.54   16.52   -2.18

Error: HIS, ASN, GLN side chain flips

Listed here are Histidine, Asparagine or Glutamine residues for which the orientation determined from hydrogen bonding analysis are different from the assignment given in the input. Either they could form energetically more favourable hydrogen bonds if the terminal group was rotated by 180 degrees, or there is no assignment in the input file (atom type 'A') but an assignment could be made. Be aware, though, that if the topology could not be determined for one or more ligands, then this option will make errors.

 421 ASN   ( 204-)  H

Warning: Buried unsatisfied hydrogen bond donors

The buried hydrogen bond donors listed in the table below have a hydrogen atom that is not involved in a hydrogen bond in the optimized hydrogen bond network.

Hydrogen bond donors that are buried inside the protein normally use all of their hydrogens to form hydrogen bonds within the protein. If there are any non hydrogen bonded buried hydrogen bond donors in the structure they will be listed here. In very good structures the number of listed atoms will tend to zero.

Waters are not listed by this option.

  21 THR   (  22-)  L      N
  26 GLN   (  27-)  L      N
  36 GLN   (  37-)  L      NE2
  76 SER   (  77-)  L      N
  88 GLN   (  89-)  L      NE2
  91 ASN   (  92-)  L      N
  94 PHE   (  96-)  L      N
 106 ARG   ( 108-)  L      N
 136 ASN   ( 138-)  L      ND2
 176 THR   ( 178-)  L      OG1
 213 VAL   (   2-)  H      N
 300 GLU   (  85-)  H      N
 348 THR   ( 131-)  H      N
 396 SER   ( 179-)  H      N

Warning: Possible wrong residue type

The residues listed in the table below have a weird environment that cannot be improved by rotamer flips. This can mean one of three things, non of which WHAT CHECK really can do much about. 1) The side chain has actually another rotamer than is present in the PDB file; 2) A counter ion is present in the structure but is not given in the PDB file; 3) The residue actually is another amino acid type. The annotation 'Alt-rotamer' indicates that WHAT CHECK thinks you might want to find an alternate rotamer for this residue. The annotation 'Sym-induced' indicates that WHAT CHECK believes that symmetry contacts might have something to do with the difficulties of this residue's side chain. Determination of these two annotations is difficult, so their absence is less meaningful than their presence. The annotation Ligand-bound indicates that a ligand seems involved with this residue. In nine of ten of these cases this indicates that the ligand is causing the weird situation rather than the residue.

 266 ASP   (  54-)  H   H-bonding suggests Asn; but Alt-Rotamer

Final summary

Note: Summary report for users of a structure

This is an overall summary of the quality of the structure as compared with current reliable structures. This summary is most useful for biologists seeking a good structure to use for modelling calculations.

The second part of the table mostly gives an impression of how well the model conforms to common refinement restraint values. The first part of the table shows a number of global quality indicators.


Structure Z-scores, positive is better than average:

  1st generation packing quality :   0.385
  2nd generation packing quality :   0.353
  Ramachandran plot appearance   :  -0.262
  chi-1/chi-2 rotamer normality  :  -1.098
  Backbone conformation          :   0.053

RMS Z-scores, should be close to 1.0:
  Bond lengths                   :   0.261 (tight)
  Bond angles                    :   0.600 (tight)
  Omega angle restraints         :   0.272 (tight)
  Side chain planarity           :   0.219 (tight)
  Improper dihedral distribution :   0.605
  B-factor distribution          :   0.504
  Inside/Outside distribution    :   0.919

Note: Summary report for depositors of a structure

This is an overall summary of the quality of the X-ray structure as compared with structures solved at similar resolutions. This summary can be useful for a crystallographer to see if the structure makes the best possible use of the data. Warning. This table works well for structures solved in the resolution range of the structures in the WHAT IF database, which is presently (summer 2008) mainly 1.1 - 1.3 Angstrom. The further the resolution of your file deviates from this range the more meaningless this table becomes.

The second part of the table mostly gives an impression of how well the model conforms to common refinement restraint values. The first part of the table shows a number of global quality indicators, which have been calibrated against structures of similar resolution.

Resolution found in PDB file : 2.00


Structure Z-scores, positive is better than average:

  1st generation packing quality :   0.8
  2nd generation packing quality :   0.2
  Ramachandran plot appearance   :   0.3
  chi-1/chi-2 rotamer normality  :  -0.3
  Backbone conformation          :  -0.1

RMS Z-scores, should be close to 1.0:
  Bond lengths                   :   0.261 (tight)
  Bond angles                    :   0.600 (tight)
  Omega angle restraints         :   0.272 (tight)
  Side chain planarity           :   0.219 (tight)
  Improper dihedral distribution :   0.605
  B-factor distribution          :   0.504
  Inside/Outside distribution    :   0.919
==============

WHAT IF
    G.Vriend,
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    J. Mol. Graph. 8, 52--56 (1990).

WHAT_CHECK (verification routines from WHAT IF)
    R.W.W.Hooft, G.Vriend, C.Sander and E.E.Abola,
      Errors in protein structures
    Nature 381, 272 (1996).
    (see also http://swift.cmbi.ru.nl/gv/whatcheck for a course and extra inform

Bond lengths and angles, protein residues
    R.Engh and R.Huber,
      Accurate bond and angle parameters for X-ray protein structure
      refinement,
    Acta Crystallogr. A47, 392--400 (1991).

Bond lengths and angles, DNA/RNA
    G.Parkinson, J.Voitechovsky, L.Clowney, A.T.Bruenger and H.Berman,
      New parameters for the refinement of nucleic acid-containing structures
    Acta Crystallogr. D52, 57--64 (1996).

DSSP
    W.Kabsch and C.Sander,
      Dictionary of protein secondary structure: pattern
      recognition of hydrogen bond and geometrical features
    Biopolymers 22, 2577--2637 (1983).

Hydrogen bond networks
    R.W.W.Hooft, C.Sander and G.Vriend,
      Positioning hydrogen atoms by optimizing hydrogen bond networks in
      protein structures
    PROTEINS, 26, 363--376 (1996).

Matthews' Coefficient
    B.W.Matthews
      Solvent content of Protein Crystals
    J. Mol. Biol. 33, 491--497 (1968).

Protein side chain planarity
    R.W.W. Hooft, C. Sander and G. Vriend,
      Verification of protein structures: side-chain planarity
    J. Appl. Cryst. 29, 714--716 (1996).

Puckering parameters
    D.Cremer and J.A.Pople,
      A general definition of ring puckering coordinates
    J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 1354--1358 (1975).

Quality Control
    G.Vriend and C.Sander,
      Quality control of protein models: directional atomic
      contact analysis,
    J. Appl. Cryst. 26, 47--60 (1993).

Ramachandran plot
    G.N.Ramachandran, C.Ramakrishnan and V.Sasisekharan,
      Stereochemistry of Polypeptide Chain Conformations
    J. Mol. Biol. 7, 95--99 (1963).

Symmetry Checks
    R.W.W.Hooft, C.Sander and G.Vriend,
      Reconstruction of symmetry related molecules from protein
      data bank (PDB) files
    J. Appl. Cryst. 27, 1006--1009 (1994).

Ion Checks
    I.D.Brown and K.K.Wu,
      Empirical Parameters for Calculating Cation-Oxygen Bond Valences
    Acta Cryst. B32, 1957--1959 (1975).

    M.Nayal and E.Di Cera,
      Valence Screening of Water in Protein Crystals Reveals Potential Na+
      Binding Sites
    J.Mol.Biol. 256 228--234 (1996).

    P.Mueller, S.Koepke and G.M.Sheldrick,
      Is the bond-valence method able to identify metal atoms in protein
      structures?
    Acta Cryst. D 59 32--37 (2003).

Checking checks
    K.Wilson, C.Sander, R.W.W.Hooft, G.Vriend, et al.
      Who checks the checkers
    J.Mol.Biol. (1998) 276,417-436.